Biochar is a solid product obtained in pyrolysis of biomass. It is a carbon-rich and porous material which can be used for a wide range of applications, among which soil improvement, remediation and pollution control take the most important roles.
As a product, biochar differs from charcoal, which is produced at lower temperatures and considered as solid fuel, containing high quantity of volatile matter. Because of higher process temperatures, the chemical structure of biomass changes and content of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen in biochar is significantly decreased in relation to carbon. In contrary to charcoal, biochar is also not phytotoxic.
Biochar is mainly used in agriculture to enhance soil fertility, improve plant growth, and provide crop nutrition. As a result, it improves the overall farming productivity. It has also gained considerable attention in livestock farming as an animal feed.